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Adenovirus enteritis

According to the currently available observations, gastroenteritis can be caused by intestinal adenoviruses belonging to serotypes 40 and 41, which belong to group F.

Due to the lack of sufficient research at the moment, it is quite difficult to determine the proportion of adenovirus enteritis in the general structure of viral gastroenteritis.

If at the end of the 80s of the last century, they were in 2nd place after rotavirus infection in the structure of gastroenteritis in children, then in the 90s the dominant role of caliciviruses was established.

Within studies conducted in Europe, Asia, North and South America, it was found that intestinal adenoviruses can cause 2 to 22% of cases of gastroenteritis in children under 2 years of age.

What are the causes?

The causes are a group of DNA-containing viruses from the Adenoviridae family, of which 37 serological types have been isolated from humans. These serotypes share a common soluble complement-binding antigen, but differ in:

• the structure of DNA;
• the molecular mass of the internal polypeptides;
• the antigenic specificity of the capsid proteins;
• the structure of hemagglutinins;
• the biological properties, including their oncogenicity;

Adenoviruses are resistant to the effects of external environmental factors, at a temperature of 36-37 ° C it preserves its activity for 7 days, at 22-23 ° C – 14 days, at 4 ° C – 70 days.

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They are also resistant to ether, they are inactivated when heated to a temperature of 56 ° C for 30 minutes, and under the action of 5% solution of phenol, 1% solution of chloramine, 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide – in duration of 15-30 minutes.

What are the symptoms?

The incubation period ranges from 8 to 10 days. Unlike other viral gastroenteritis, the intestinal strains of adenovirus cause a longer illness – from 5 to 12 days, and sometimes up to 14 days.

The main difference between intestinal adenoviruses and respiratory adenoviruses is that the patients do not develop such clinical signs as nasopharyngitis and keratoconjunctivitis, although viremia is also observed in these patients, that is, the virus penetrates the blood.

The disease is characterized by moderately pronounced intoxication, a slight increase in body temperature, and the subfebrile condition persists for several days.

In cases where the infection lasts up to 2 weeks, the patients more often have a fever of the so-called irregular type, which is sometimes wavy in nature.

Dyspepsia also occurs in the form of diarrhea and vomiting, which are moderately expressed and persist for 1-3 days or more.

Sufferers significantly more often than with other gastroenteritis report pain in the abdomen, which is caused by the increase in mesenteric lymph nodes.

Cases have also been described in which fever and abdominal pain are almost the only manifestation of adenoviral gastroenteritis.

In a number of cases, changes in the respiratory tract can be detected simultaneously with the signs of gastroenteritis in patients, however, the mechanism and nature of the pathology that develops is not sufficiently well studied.

The prognosis is favorable. The disease goes away on its own practically without any complications.

Treatment of adenoviral enteritis

The treatment of patients with gastroenteritis is based on the principles of pathogenetic therapy. The choice of the optimal way to treat patients depends on timely diagnosis and also on the establishment through laboratory tests of the exact cause of the disease.

Also during the period of enteritis, it is recommended to stop using dairy products.

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