Encyclopedia

Mushroom poisoning

About 4% of all mushroom poisonings occur due to the use of poisonous mushrooms. The reasons for these poisonings are due to the ignorance of these mushrooms and their improper preparation for consumption.

There is a classification of mushrooms that is based on their edibility:

1. Unconditionally edible mushrooms, which are prepared without additional processing, include white mushrooms, butter mushrooms, porcini mushrooms, meadow mushrooms, etc.

2. Mushrooms conditionally suitable for consumption – it is necessary to pre-boil or soak in running water before they are salted.

To this group belong all mushrooms which, when their internal fruiting body is broken, release a white, milk-like juice with a burning taste, as well as mushrooms containing poisonous acids, for example ink silk, which if used simultaneously with alcohol causes food poisoning.

If the toxic substances are not removed, this group of mushrooms, as well as the poisonous ones, can cause mild or severe poisoning.

Drying them for 3-4 weeks is considered the most reliable method of neutralizing the adverse effect on the body. But drying mushrooms containing poisonous substances does not destroy their toxicity.< /p>

3. The group of mushrooms unsuitable for consumption includes both poisonous and non-poisonous, but having a very unpleasant taste or smell, which does not allow their use in the preparation of dishes.

The number of poisonous mushrooms is relatively small and includes red, white and green toadstools, purple mushrooms, etc. The poison of this group of mushrooms is not destroyed and is not removed from them during heat treatment or salting.

After collection, the mushrooms must be processed immediately, and the storage period of the fresh must not exceed 18-24 hours at a temperature of no more than 10 degrees Celsius.

It should be remembered that even the best and certainly edible mushrooms begin to rot in their entirety or, if left untreated, can become toxic.

It is especially important to prevent the poisoning of children who live near the forest. In case of poisoning, the gastrointestinal tract is mainly affected, which clinically manifests as symptoms of acute gastroenterocolitis and causes dehydration to varying degrees.

Symptoms suggestive of mushroom poisoning

• Affecting the digestive system – spasmodic abdominal pain, nausea, uncontrollable vomiting, diarrheal stools sometimes 20-25 times in a day. Amanita phalloides or green fly agaric poisoning is characterized by the appearance of blood in the stool and coffee-colored vomit.

Damage of the central nervous system – manifests itself in different ways depending on the type of mushrooms. For example, fly agaric causes hallucinations and hyperexcitability of motor neurons. First there is anxiety, then apathy and indifference. Passing into a state of unconsciousness is possible.

• Affecting the cardiovascular system is expressed as a decrease in blood pressure and an acceleration of the heart rate.

The degree of impairment of liver and kidney function depends on the type and amount of mushrooms eaten. In the early stages, oliguria develops – a reduced amount of diuresis below 500 ml.

Subsequently, liver failure occurs, characterized by brain damage and jaundice.

Severe intoxication leads to hepatic coma. Kidney involvement can cause acute kidney failure.

Treatment of mushroom poisoning

The removal of the poison from the body is achieved by inducing vomiting, which is mandatory in the presence of large lumps of poisonous mushrooms in the stomach, as they cannot pass through stomach tube used when doing gastric lavage.

At home you can activate the vomiting reflex by taking 1 glass of warm water with 1 tablespoon of salt dissolved in it or mustard powder 1 tsp. in a glass of warm water. Another way is to drink very cold, with a temperature of about 2-3 degrees and press the root of the tongue with your finger.

Gastric lavage must be performed even 3-4 hours or 10-12 after exposure to poisonous mushrooms. At the end of the wash, apply activated charcoal 1-2 tablets per 1 kg. body weight.

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