Encyclopedia

Pigment spots

Pigment spots appear as flat, oval areas with a darker color: from light to dark brown as a result of aging, exposure of the skin to the sun, hormonal changes in the body, intake of certain drugs or the use of cosmetics.

The spots, especially when they are numerous and represent a cosmetic defect, are often accompanied by dry, rough skin and vascular exudate. Malignant skin formations can be masked under the pigment spots.

Pigments are responsible for the coloring of the skin, and in healthy skin there are 5 of them – melanin, carotene, melanoid, oxyhemoglobin and reconstituted hemoglobin.

When their concentration is disturbed or in the absence of any of them, colored spots of different sizes are formed on the skin.

The main function of skin pigmentation is performed by melanin, which serves as a barrier to ultraviolet radiation.

As a result of the accumulation of melanin in large quantities on the skin, pigmented skin areas are formed, which can be both congenital and acquired.

What are the causes?

The main cause is prolonged and intense exposure to ultraviolet light, as UV rays activate melanin production.

Features in metabolic processes, diseases of the digestive system, in particular, liver pathology, often lead to the appearance of dark spots on the skin.

Diseases of the endocrine system such as pituitary tumors, pituitary insufficiency, Based’s disease, in most cases are accompanied by the appearance of pigmented areas on the skin with areas of hypo- and hyperpigmentation.

Nervous and mental disorders, frequent stressful situations, lack of vitamin C in the body, gynecological diseases and mental disorders of the type of hysterical neuroses can also cause pigmentation disorders and as a result dark spots appear.

Dark spots associated with pregnancy often disappear on their own after delivery, but sometimes continue to threaten the skin for a longer period of time.

Treatment of pigment spots

The appearance of dark areas on the skin, and especially those that tend to increase in size over time, are not a sign of good health.

Therefore, before starting with their discoloration, you should consult a dermatologist, endocrinologist and gynecologist.

If a condition or disease is found that could be the cause of the dark spots, its treatment or treatment should be started first.

Then you can proceed to remove the dark areas on the skin.

During treatment at home, the desired effect is not achieved, as they do not reach the deeper layers of the skin and affect only the superficial ones.

Chemical peeling is an ideal option if the pigment spots are many but shallow, such as freckles.

As a result of the effect of fruit acids on the accumulated melantocytes, a uniform discoloration of the skin is achieved. Dark spots gradually disappear and the skin becomes velvety.

Mechanical impact on the skin, such as dermabrasion, is not as effective for dark spots.

The microminiaturization procedure is similar to a chemical peel, but the active substance is applied pointwise under vacuum and is suitable for removing small but deep dark spots.

Mesotherapy ensures the introduction of the active substance deep into the tissue, as a result of which the discoloration of the dark areas on the skin is achieved and the general condition is improved.

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