Hyperglycemia is a condition in which the level of glucose /sugar/ is above normal for the human body.

Glucose enters the human body through most of the foods that are consumed, then with the help of some hormones, the body provides the muscles and the liver from it.

Blood carries glucose to all cells of the body. To enter the cells as a source of energy, insulin is needed, which is a hormone secreted by the pancreas, also called the pancreas.

The pancreas releases an amount of insulin into the blood depending on blood sugar levels. Insulin helps carry over glucose from digested food into cells. Sometimes the body stops producing insulin, as in type I diabetes, or the hormone does not perform its function properly, as in type II diabetes. In diabetics not enough glucose enters the cells, thus sugar remains in the blood and its concentration increases.

Blood sugar levels can be measured in a few seconds using a device called a glucometer. A small drop of blood is taken from a finger and placed on a test strip. which is entered into the measuring device. The blood sugar level is written on the display of the device after a few seconds.

Blood glucose levels vary widely throughout the day and night in diabetics. Ideally, glucose levels are between 900 and 1300 mg. per liter of blood and below 1800 mg. within 1-2 hours after a meal.

When blood sugar levels remain high for several hours dehydration or more serious complications can occur.

What’s more, even mild hyperglycemia – fasting blood sugar is over 1090 mg. per liter of blood in children or adolescents, or over 1000 mg. in children before puberty, it can damage tissue in the brain, kidneys and arteries if it goes undetected for several years.

What are the symptoms?

Elevated blood glucose concentration itself is a symptom of diabetes. However, a person may not have any complaints or may not pay attention to the signs of the disease at all.

The most common clinical manifestations are:

• Dry mouth;
• Constant thirst;
• Frequent urination;
< em>• Urinating at night;
• Blurred vision;
• Dry and itchy skin;
• Fatigue or sleepiness;
• Weight loss and greater appetite than usual;

If blood sugar levels do not decrease for several hours, the affected person becomes dehydrated and may develop other symptoms such as:

• Difficulty breathing;
• Dizziness when standing up;
• Rapid weight loss;
• Persistent drowsiness and confusion;
• Loss of consciousness and then coma;

Treatment of hyperglycemia

The easiest way to lower high glucose levels is physical activity. But if the blood sugar level is over 2400 mg. per liter of blood, test your urine for ketones first.

If you detect the presence of ketones, do not exert yourself. Consult a doctor for a safe way to lower blood sugar in this situation.

• Take all the medicines prescribed to you for diabetes according to the indicated scheme;
• Eat regularly avoiding skipping meals;
• Drink liquids without sugar and without caffeine;
Check your blood sugar levels every 4 hours and record your meter readings until they return to normal levels.
• Test your urine for ketones and record your readings.

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