What is infertility?

Infertility or sterility is the inability of a couple to conceive a child regardless of the cause for more than 1 year in which no contraceptives have been used. Infertility affects about 10% of men and women of reproductive age.

Sterility affects men and women equally. Most cases of infertility are treated with medication or surgery.

Improvements in infertility treatments have made it possible for many women whose partners suffer from infertility to become pregnant.

New and advanced technologies include in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and other similar procedures.

What can be the causes of infertility?

The normal process of reproduction requires interaction between the male and female reproductive organs. During ovulation, a single egg is usually released from the woman’s ovaries, which reaches the uterus through the fallopian tubes.

Men emit sperm when they ejaculate. The “meeting” of sperm and egg is in the fallopian tubes, where fertilization by one of the many spermatozoa takes place.

The embryo then attaches to the uterus and pregnancy occurs when the zygote begins to secrete hormones that suppress ovulation.

Infertility is present when something in the normal process of fertilization does not take place. The problem can be in the woman – infertility in the woman or in the man – sterility in the man or both. The causes of infertility are unknown in 10% of cases.

In unexplained infertility, all standard diagnostic tests are normal and there should be no infertility.

The actual cause of infertility cannot be found because the problem may be with the egg or sperm, or with the embryo that cannot attach to the uterus.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

STDs such as gonorrhea and chlamydia can cause pelvic inflammatory disease to cause damage to a woman’s fallopian tubes.


Endometriosis affects women of reproductive age and can cause infertility. Women are at risk of developing this disease in the presence of a hereditary predisposition.

In endometriosis, the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus and can damage the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

In milder forms, the disease is asymptomatic and the woman may not know about it and it may be discovered accidentally during laparoscopy.

Occupational and environmental factors

Certain environmental factors can cause fewer sperm to be produced. Exposure to lead and other heavy metals and pesticides have also been linked to male sterility.

Many other factors, such as excessive exposure to heat, microwave radiation, and ultrasound, are debatable as to whether they can cause sterility.

Toxic effects associated with smoking, marijuana and other drugs

Smoking can cause infertility in both men and women. In laboratory experiments with animals, nicotine has been shown to block sperm production and reduce the size of the testicles.

In women, tobacco changes the cervical mucus, which affects the way sperm reach the egg.

Marijuana can disrupt a woman’s ovulation cycle, and in men it can lower the amount of sperm in the semen and impair the quality of the sperm.

Other risk factors in men and women:

  • Use of heroin and cocaine, increasing the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease and HIV infection;
  • Excessive use of alcohol;
  • Exercising too much can be dangerous, especially for long-distance runners. In women, this can lead to an interruption of the ovulation cycle or a miscarriage. In men, overdoing sports can cause a reduced sperm count.
  • Improper nutrition or heavy diets that lead to sudden weight loss.< /li>
  • Obesity affects a woman’s fertility only if the woman is overweight.
  • Diseases such as anorexia and bulimia affect normal menstruation and levels of thyroid hormones, thereby disrupting ovulation.

A woman’s fertility declines when she enters her fifth decade of life, i.e. between 40 and 49 years. In men, testosterone levels decrease with age and this has a negative impact on the concentration of sperm in the seminal fluid.

Couples where both partners are healthy and under the age of 30, have regular sex and do not use any contraceptive methods have about a 25-30% chance of achieving pregnancy each month. A woman is most fertile at the beginning of her third decade of life.

After 35 and especially after age 40, the chance of getting pregnant is less than 10% in any one month.

Infertility treatment

The doctor will meet with you and your partner, do an examination and make a treatment plan depending on the cause, the duration of the infertility and the woman’s age.

If pregnancy is not achieved within a reasonable period of time, the couple and the doctor may order additional tests and a possible change in treatment.

The physician should be able to provide adequate counseling to the couple as to when pregnancy can possibly be expected.

Most often, infertility can be treated with conventional therapies such as drug therapy with fertility drugs to help ovulation or surgery to correct problems with the reproductive organs.

How to protect yourself

  1. Healthy lifestyle: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is essential to prevent infertility. This includes proper nutrition, regular physical exercise and giving up harmful habits such as cigarettes and excessive alcohol.

  2. Regular doctor visits: Regular doctor visits can help in early detection of problems that can lead to infertility. A doctor can provide advice and treatment to help patients maintain their reproductive health.

  3. Avoiding infections: Infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea can cause infertility in men and women. Protecting with condoms and getting tested regularly for such infections can help protect against this risk.

  4. Stress Control: Stress can have a negative effect on the reproductive system. Stress management techniques such as yoga, meditation and relaxation can help support reproductive health.

  5. Proper food and nutritional supplements: Proper nutrition is the key to optimal health of the reproductive system. Including foods rich in antioxidants and folic acid in the diet can improve reproductive function.

  6. Avoid toxic substances: Exposure to toxic chemicals such as pesticides and chemicals in the environment can harm the reproductive system. Avoiding contact with such substances can be helpful.

  7. Proper hormone regulation: Various medical conditions such as polycystic ovaries and hormonal imbalances can lead to infertility. Regular consultations with specialists and treatment can help maintain the health of the hormonal system.

Remember that infertility can be an extremely complex and multifaceted condition that is influenced by many factors.

No matter how strictly you follow a healthy lifestyle and precautions, there is no guarantee that you will avoid this problem completely. So what does this mean for you?

First, it is important to realize that infertility is not a sign of weakness or failure. It can affect any person, regardless of gender or age. You should not feel guilty or ashamed if you are facing this problem.

Consultation with medical professionals is essential if you have suspected difficulties in your reproductive health.

Professionals have the knowledge and tools to conduct detailed assessments and make an accurate diagnosis. This first steps towards understanding the root causes of the problem.

Finally, remember that reproductive health is part of the larger context of your overall health. Keep it a priority by following a healthy lifestyle and consult specialists when needed.

Don’t lose hope because in many cases, with the right support and care, reproductive difficulties can be overcome.

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button