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Inflammation of the ovaries

Oophoritis is a disease dangerous for the female reproductive system, characterized by inflammation of the ovaries a pair of female gonads.

It is often accompanied by inflammation of the fallopian tubes – salpingitis. It is possible to be affected, both one ovary – unilateral inflammation, and both – bilateral oophoritis.

Usually, the inflammatory process is common to the uterine appendages – ovaries and fallopian tubes and is called salpingo-oophoritis or adnexitis.

Oophoritis can have a specific character if it is caused by gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, mycoplasma, tuberculosis and non-specific, if due to conditionally pathogenic microflora / Escherichia coli , staphylococci, candida, streptococci, etc./.

Inflammation of the ovaries and its aggravation can be provoked by overcooling, menstruation, childbirth, surgical termination of pregnancy, use of an intrauterine device for contraception, diagnostic and surgical manipulations of the genitals.

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Often ovarian inflammation develops secondary, as a result of the entry of infection from the cervical canal, uterus and fallopian tubes.

Less often, the causative agents of the inflammation can penetrate into the gonads from the blood or lymph, for example in tuberculosis.

In oophoritis, the infectious process from the uterine cavity gradually spreads to the fallopian tubes, initially affecting their mucous membranes, and subsequently their muscular and serous layers.

The walls of the fallopian tubes thicken and lengthen, and the inflammation leads to the discharge of pus.

Subsequently, adhesions form in the lumen of the fallopian tubes.

After that, the ovaries are also involved in the inflammatory process, and their tissues gradually turn into liquid form under the action of pus from the fallopian tubes.

A fusion of the fallopian tubes and ovaries, altered by the inflammation, is obtained, and therefore separate symptoms of oophoritis and salpingitis do not appear.

Sometimes the pathological changes spread into the surrounding peritoneum /periadnexitis/.

The accumulated inflammatory exudate can be transparent and form hydrosalpings or purulent pyosalpinx in the fallopian tube, and pyovar is formed when pus collects in the ovary.

With continued spread of the infectious process, it comes out of the tissues of the ovaries, developing pelvioperitonitis.

Treatment of inflammation of the ovaries

Treatment of the disease should be started after making a complete differential diagnosis.

Applicable therapy depends on the stage of oophoritis /acute, subacute, chronic/, the causes of its occurrence, as well as the nature of the symptoms.

In case of acute inflammation, hospitalization is necessary – compliance with bed rest, in the first days apply:

• cool compresses in the lower abdomen,

• painkillers and anti-sensitizing preparations,

• antibiotics, sulfonamides, calcium chloride;

• medicines that strengthen the general condition of the body;

In the subacute stage, physiotherapeutic procedures are prescribed with caution. In the phase of chronic inflammation, various types of physiotherapy and balneology are shown.

Chronic and advanced forms of oophoritis are treated longer and more difficult than those in which treatment was started promptly and may become the cause of complications requiring surgical intervention.

After diagnosing oophoritis and determining the cause, the gynecologist prescribes an individual course of treatment.

Usually, drug therapy for this disease is combined with non-drug therapy.

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the non-drug treatment methods that gynecologists apply to inflamed ovaries, and the use of antibiotics is limited.

The use of antibiotics in the treatment of chronic oophoritis is justified in the following cases:

• repeated chronic oophoritis, if an increase in the size of the inflammatory process can certainly be concluded from clinical manifestations.

• If therapy with antibiotics and also with sulfonamides was not carried out in the acute and subacute stages of chronic oophoritis.

• If in the course of physiotherapy or general body-strengthening therapy there is an exacerbation of the chronically inflamed ovaries.

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