Encyclopedia

Miliary tuberculosis

Miliary tuberculosis /MT/ – this is a disease that is infectious and proceeds mainly through the formation of so-called tubercular nodules in several human organs.

This form of the disease finds favorable ground for development mainly in two types of people – those with a compromised immune system or people of advanced age.

The cause of the disease is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is an obligate aerobe, which is characterized by acid resistance and slow growth.

What are the causes and symptoms?

Miliary tuberculosis can be both acute and chronic. The acute form of the disease proceeds similarly to typhus, but in a severe form. The chronic form of MT is a disease with a wave-like nature with periods of exacerbation and resolution of symptoms.

In elderly people, MT is a consequence of infection or reactivation of bacteria present in the blood. In children, the disease usually develops as a result of primary tuberculosis.

Serious danger to the patient’s life is the penetration of the tubercle bacillus into the bloodstream. In this form of tuberculosis, numerous lesions are formed in the form of nodes in the respiratory and other organs.

As already stated, the main cause of the infectious disease is mycobacterium, the infection with which is carried out by air-droplet route.

A characteristic feature of this form of tuberculosis is the development of infectious foci in multiple organs. The occurrence of the disease contributes to the reduction of the body’s protective functions.

The main symptoms of MT are weight loss, sudden rise in body temperature, weakness, general malaise, difficulty breathing, very strong cough and runny nose.

In advanced articles, changes occur in the stem cells of the brain, and leukemia is also possible.

The constant release of bacteria into the bloodstream causes an increase in body temperature and exhaustion of the body.

MT forms foci in the lungs, spleen, intestines, liver and meninges. Sometimes this form of tuberculosis affects only the lungs, but it often manifests itself as an acute form of hematogenous origin.

MT can be divided into several types – typhoid type with fever and intoxication of the body, pulmonary form with symptoms of respiratory failure, meningeal type with the presence of small foci of spread in the brain.

Diagnosis of the disease

Miliary tuberculosis can be detected by radiography and tomography. The X-ray of the chest shows an acute disease, multiple foci of inflammation and lesions of the lungs and other organs are observed.

When analyzing saliva and blood, the presence of mycobacteria can be detected.

Mantou’s test is often negative in patients. Ophthalmoscopy, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, lung and other organ biopsy, bone marrow puncture are prescribed to establish an accurate diagnosis.

Treatment of miliary tuberculosis

The main course of treatment of this form of tuberculosis lasts from 10 to 12 months. Drug therapy includes 3-5 preparations of antibacterial type, as well as means that stimulate the immune system, physiotherapy procedures and breathing exercises.

At an advanced stage of the disease, in accordance with the patient’s diagnostic indications, lung resection is performed.

As additional therapy, proper work and rest regime, balanced diet, additional intake of vitamins, phototherapy and climate therapy are appointed.

Frequently, vitamin D intake and regular use of dairy products and calcium-containing foods are prescribed to strengthen the body in MT.

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