What is a fibroid?

A fibroid, also called a fibroid, is the most common benign tumor of the uterus. Fibroids are tumors of the smooth muscle of the uterine wall. It is possible that they develop in the wall of the uterus itself or are attached to it.

The benign mass can cause heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain and frequent urination. Fibroids can also lead to other health problems.

These benign formations occur in up to 50% of women and are one of the main reasons for hysterectomy /surgical removal of the uterus/.

Fibroids occur in the muscle tissues of the uterus and it is possible to develop in the uterine cavity /submucous/, in the uterine wall itself /intramuscular/ or on the surface of the uterus in the abdominal cavity.

Although these types of tumors are referred to as fibroids, this term is misleading because they consist of muscle tissue, not fibrous tissue. The medical term for fibroma is leiomyoma, a variety of myoma or mesenchymal tumor.

What are the symptoms?

In most cases, even large fibroids do not cause any signs or symptoms. These benign formations are often discovered incidentally during a gynecological examination.

When women feel any symptoms, they are most often the following:

• Heavier menstrual bleeding known as menorrhagia. Sometimes blood clots also form.
• Sensation of pressure on the bladder, which can lead to frequent urination and a sense of urgency to empty the bladder and rarely complete inability.
• Pressure on the rectum, leading to constipation;
• Pressure on the pelvis, which is characterized by a feeling of fullness in the lower abdomen, also pain in the abdomen;
Increase in the size of waistline and changes in the shape of the abdomen. Some women may need to wear a larger size, but not because they have significantly gained weight.
Infertility, which is defined as the inability to conceive after 1 year of trying , provided that the woman’s sexual partner releases enough sperm during ejaculation.

Treatment of uterine myoma

The method of treatment depends on the manifestations of the disease and complaints, her age, the size and location of the leiomyomas. Whether the patient plans to have children and her general state of health are also taken into account.

In most cases, treatment is not necessary, especially if the woman has no symptoms or the tumors are small and the woman has entered menopause. Abnormal vaginal bleeding may require a surgical procedure to remove the endometrium / the uterine mucosa/.

The procedure is more commonly known as abrasion or curettage. If no malignancy is found, bleeding can in most cases be controlled with hormone therapy.

Among the treatment methods is active surveillance, it consists of periodic monitoring of the size and growth rates of the benign tumor and regular monitoring for indicators of cancer development. If the woman has no symptoms such as vaginal bleeding or pelvic pain, and if the fibroid is not growing rapidly, no treatment may be necessary.

In some patients, more frequent gynecological examinations are required, it is recommended that they be every 6 months to check for fibroid changes.

Is it possible to prevent them?

Women should aim to maintain a normal body weight after the age of 18. With the increase in body weight, the secretion of estrogen increases, which accelerates the growth of fibroid nodes.

Regular exercise, in addition to helping to maintain a normal body weight, also limits the secretion of hormones that stimulate the growth of fibroids. Routine gynecological examinations are recommended for the timely detection of such benign formations.

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