Tendovaginitis – is an inflammation of the tendons and their sheaths.

Unlike tendinitis, it develops in the area of ​​the tendons, which have a sheath – a sort of small tunnel consisting of connective tissue. It can be acute or chronic.

It manifests itself with pain that intensifies with movement. Edema and a local increase in temperature are possible.

In infectious tendovaginitis, symptoms of general intoxication are observed, non-infectious ones proceed without deterioration of the general state of health.

Treatment depends on the form and course of tendovaginitis and can be both conservative and operative.

Tendovaginitis – how it differs from tendinitis

Tendovaginitis is an inflammation that develops in the tissues of the tendon and tendon sheath. Tendons covered by a sheath of connective tissue in the forearm, wrist, palm, ankle, feet and Achilles tendon are affected.

Tendovaginitis can be infectious and non-infectious, both acute and chronic. Infectious tendovaginitis is usually treated surgically, the rest conservatively.

Causes of tendovaginitis

A non-infectious pathological process can develop as a result of constant overloading and the associated microtraumas of the tendon and its vagina.

Such tendovaginitis occurs in people with certain professions – pianists, recorders who type all day on a keyboard, movers, etc.

In a number of cases it develops, as a result of trauma to the tendons – stretching or injury.

Non-infectious tendovaginitis sometimes develops in rheumatic diseases. In this case, its cause is toxic reactive inflammation.

Nonspecific can occur when infection spreads from a nearby focus of purulent infection – in panaritium, purulent arthritis, osteomyelitis or phlegmon.

A specific form of the disease can be observed in brucellosis, tuberculosis, gonorrhea. Infectious organisms provocateurs penetrate into the tendinous vagina with the blood circulation.

How inflammatory tendon disease develops

A tendon is a dense, inelastic bundle that joins a bone and muscle or two bones. During the movements, the muscles are shortened, and the tendon is displaced relative to the surrounding tissues.

In the middle part and adjacent to the muscle, the tendons are covered with connective tissue.

The synovial membrane, forming a small amount of fatty liquid, is also covered with such a coating. Thanks to this, when moving, the tendon easily slides inside its peculiar channel, without encountering resistance.

In case of inflammation and degeneration of the tendon or the tendon sheath, sliding becomes difficult, symptoms characteristic of tendovaginitis occur.

What are the types of tendovaginitis

According to the provoking factor, they are distinguished:

  • Non-infectious tendovaginitis, which in turn can be occupational, reactive and post-traumatic;
  • Infectious, which are divided into specific and non-specific.

Regarding the nature of the inflammatory process, they differ:

  • Serous;
  • Sero-fibrinous;
  • Purulent;< /li>

In view of the course, acute and chronic are distinguished.

Types of tendovaginitis and treatment

Acute non-infectious

This form usually develops after overwork, for example, intensive work at the computer, when preparing for exams at a music school, as well as for competitions .

Tendons and tendon sheaths on the surface of the palms are usually affected, less often on the feet.

There are also tendovaginitis of the shoulder muscle tendons.

The disease develops acutely. Swelling occurs in the affected area. The movements become very painful and are accompanied by a kind of light popping in the area of ​​the affected tendon.

With proper treatment, symptoms of acute tendovaginitis completely subside within a few days or weeks.

Continued excessive loads on the tendon, already weakened by the disease, often lead to transition into a chronic form.

It is recommended to limit the load on the limb, it is possible to do this with the use of orthoses. Cold or ice is applied to the affected area.

In case of intense pain syndrome painkillers are prescribed. Physiotherapy, shock wave therapy is used for treatment.

In case of tendovaginitis with very strong and long-lasting pain, in which painkillers do not work, therapeutic blockades are performed with corticosteroids.

After removing the pain syndrome, therapeutic gymnastics is prescribed to strengthen the muscles.

Acute post-traumatic form

The post-traumatic form occurs with sprains and trauma in the wrist area. In the anamnesis there is a characteristic trauma – a fall on a bent or unbent arm at the wrist, less often an injury in the wrist area itself. Swelling and pain are observed in the area of ​​damage.

Immobilization using a bandage or plaster is prescribed. In the first days after the injury, cold compresses or ice are applied to the affected area. After that, heating is done and phototherapy is appointed.

In very rare cases, with significant bleeding in the tendinous vagina, a puncture is performed to remove the accumulated blood. The symptoms of the post-traumatic form subside in a few weeks.

Chronic non-infectious form

It may be a primary chronic form or develop after acute non-infectious or post-traumatic tendovaginitis.

The cause is chronic microtraumas that lead to the destruction of tendon sheaths. The course is relapsing. Painful sensations intensify when moving. There is no edema and swelling.

On palpation, soreness is found along the tendon itself and cracking when moving. A specific form of chronic non-infectious tendovaginitis is the partial blockage of the tendon in the bone-fibrous canal.

There are several syndromes that are caused by stenosing tendovaginitis.

Carpal tunnel syndrome – develops when this tunnel narrows. During the examination, painful sensations on the tendon and impaired sensitivity in the area of ​​the 1st 3rd finger and on the inner surface of the 4th finger were found. Loss of ability to make precise and fine movements and reduction in palm strength.

In a period of exacerbation of chronic tendovaginitis, immobilization of the limbs is prescribed, as well as physiotherapy – phonophoresis with hydrocortisone, electrophoresis with potassium iodide and novocaine.

In the absence of effect from conservative treatment, surgical intervention of tendon sheaths can be resorted to.

Acute infectious tendovaginitis

An infectious form of tendovaginitis can occur when purulent microflora spreads from a nearby infectious focus or from the external environment – in case of trauma.

It most often develops in the area of ​​the tendon sheaths of the fingers and in this case is called tendon panaritium.

Initially, a serous exudate accumulates in the area of ​​the tendinous vagina. Then pus forms. The swelling and the pressure of the accumulated pus on the surrounding tissues cause severe pain and disrupts the blood supply to the tendons.

The spread of pus leads to a worsening of the general condition – the body temperature rises, chills and marked weakness occur. Significant swelling is observed. The skin in the affected area acquires a reddish-bluish color.

In the early stage, before the formation of an abscess, the treatment of infectious tendovaginitis is conservative – immobilization, anesthetic blocks with novocaine, therapy with ultraviolet rays and laser therapy.

How to protect yourself

Warming up and loading are an important part of any physical activity. They not only help prepare the body for training, but also reduce the risk of various sports injuries, including tendovaginitis.

Tendovaginitis is an inflammatory condition of the tendons that often affects the hands and wrists. To protect yourself from this type of injury and ensure the health of your musculoskeletal system, it is important to follow some basic principles and rules.

  • Warm-up and stretching:
  • Before starting physical activity, it is extremely important to perform a proper warm-up. Warming up prepares the muscles, joints and tendons for the exercises you are about to do. It should include short bursts of cardiovascular exercise, such as jogging or jumping jacks, to get your heart rate up and prepare your body for exercise. Then perform stretching exercises for the muscles and tendons that will be stressed during the exercise.
  • Gradually increasing the load:
  • When you exercise, it is important to increase the intensity and volume of training gradually. Don’t try to do heavy exercises or strain your muscles excessively, especially if you are a beginner. A gradual increase in load allows your body to adapt and prevents unnecessary trauma and injury.
  • Avoid activities that keep the arms overhead:
  • One of the common causes of tendovaginitis is prolonged holding of the hands above the head, for example when painting the ceiling. If you have to do such activities, try to take frequent breaks and change the position of your hands. This will distribute the load and reduce the risk of tendinitis.
  • Choosing the right shoes:
  • Shoes can also play a big role in preventing injuries. and injuries, especially if you are an active person. Choose shoes that are the right size and provide adequate support for your feet and legs. Shoes should be comfortable and adapt to your physiology.
  • Correct execution of exercises:
  • If you do sports regularly and perform intense exercises, it is essential important to ensure you do them correctly. Improper technique can lead to injuries and pain in the muscles and tendons. If you are unsure how to perform a particular exercise, consult a gym instructor or trainer who can teach you the proper technique.
  • Adequate recovery and rest:
  • To protect your body from overuse and wear and tear, it is important to give your muscles and tendons time to recover. Rest plays a key role in the process of tissue repair and regeneration. Make sure you give yourself plenty of time to rest between workouts and remember to hydrate and eat right to maintain optimal fitness.
  • Proper food and hydration:
  • To maintain the health of your muscles and tendons, it is important to eat right and stay well hydrated. Include enough protein, vitamins and minerals in your diet, which are important for muscle and tendon health. Drink enough water, especially during physical activity, to keep your body hydrated and prevent injury.

In conclusion, preventing tendinitis and other sports injuries requires attention to your physical activity. and healthy lifestyle.

Following the above simple rules can go a long way in preventing tendovaginitis and similar problems.

Be sure to consult a professional if you experience pain or discomfort during exercise to prevent more serious injuries.

Your musculoskeletal system deserves care and attention so you can enjoy an active and healthy lifestyle.

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