What is trichomoniasis?

Trichomoniasis or trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by protozoa, which are microscopic parasites which most -often found in the tissues of the vagina and urethra.

Although this disease most often affects women, it can also develop in men, and in most such cases it is symptomatic.

What are the symptoms?

About 70% of those infected show no symptoms. When manifestations of the disease occur, they can range from mild to severe.

Symptoms appear within 5-28 days after infection, but in some cases symptoms may start later. If untreated, the infection can last for years.

The most typical symptoms in women are:

• Vaginal discharge;
• Vaginal itching;
• Possible pain during urination;
• Bad smell, itching or frothy discharge from the vagina;
• Yellow or grey-greenish discharge;

In men:

• Pain when urinating;
• Pain and swelling in the scrotum as in epididymitis;
• Discharge from the urethra with unpleasant smell of fish;

What are the causes?

The infection is caused by Trichomonas Trichomonas vaginalis, which are motile protozoa consisting of only one cell.

Approximately 174 million people are infected with these parasites each year, making these types of infections the most common treatable sexually transmitted diseases. And only about 30% of those infected develop any symptoms.

The average size of trichomonads is 15 micrometers or 0.015 millimeters, which makes them invisible to the naked eye.The parasites reproduce by dividing every 8 to 12 hours.

Trichomonas vaginalis is isolated in 14-60% of men of infected women and in 67-100% of women of infected men. It is not known why the protozoa is less likely to cause infection in men.

One suggestion is that prostatic fluid contains zinc and other substances that could be harmful to trichomonads.

Treatment of trichomoniasis

The therapy that is applied by choice is with antibiotics prescribed by the doctor. In addition to antibiotic therapy, several alternative methods are used. But these therapies have not been proven to be effective and there is no strong scientific evidence to support their use.

Self-treatment should not be used as a substitute for seeing your doctor and prescribing appropriate antibiotics, as it is possible to become a spreader of the disease, as well as other sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis , AIDS, gonorrhea or chlamydia, since their cure is impossible without the destruction of the protozoa.

Alternative medicine experts believe that daily warm water baths can be effective, but they are not a substitute for antibiotic therapy. To speed up the destruction of the parasite, you can add the juice of one lemon to the water, as well as one teaspoon of vinegar for every liter of warm water in the bath.

For annoying discharge from the vagina or penis, bergamot oil is applied and can be added to the bath water.

Drug treatment

Metronidazole is most often prescribed, except for the first trimester of pregnancy, when topical clotrimazole is used. It is important not to consume alcohol while taking this medicine, as the combination may cause abdominal pain and vomiting.


A large single dose is as effective as longer treatment, but the risk of side effects such as nausea and vomiting increases. Therefore, it is more often prescribed to take metronidazole pills twice a day for 7 days.

Clotrimazole – is used in pregnant women and only if they have symptoms. The drug is administered vaginally at night for 14 days. This will weaken the manifestations of the disease, but the probability of cure is only 20%.

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