Typhoid Fever

What is typhoid?

Typhoid, also known as typhoid, is a highly contagious disease that is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi.

This bacteria is particularly dangerous because it can be spread in multiple ways, including through contaminated food and water, and through close contact with infected people. < /p>

Even contact with feces that already contain the causative bacteria can lead to infection.

The bacterium Salmonella typhi is extremely resistant and can survive in various conditions. It can be found in water and soil, and can survive in the outdoor environment for an extended period of time.

This makes controlling the spread of the disease particularly difficult, especially in areas where sanitary conditions are not at an optimal level.

The incubation period of typhus, i.e. the time from the moment of infection to the appearance of the first symptoms is usually between 1 and 2 weeks.

During this period, the bacterium develops and multiplies in the body of the infected person without showing any obvious symptoms.

This can lead to the spread of the disease, as infected people may not be aware that they carry the bacteria and spread it to others.

Symptoms of typhoid fever

  • Persistent lack of appetite;
  • Headache;
  • < li>Pains all over the body;

  • High body temperature around 39-40 degrees, and the patient may begin to hallucinate;
  • Constant feeling of fatigue;
  • Initially, the patients are constipated, and a few days later they also develop diarrhea.

After the initial symptoms appear, the pain begins to be localized in the upper part of the body in the abdominal area.

The high temperature lasts for about 2-3 weeks. Improvement of the patient’s condition occurs, if no complications develop, in the 3rd or 4th week after the appearance of the initial symptoms.

In about 10% of people, the symptoms of the disease recur after 1-2 weeks of feeling better.

Recurrences of typhoid fever are more common in people treated with antibiotics.

Approximately 3-5% of people who have contracted typhoid remain carriers of the causative bacterium even after they have recovered from the disease.

How is typhoid fever treated?

Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics that kill the salmonella bacteria. Before the use of antibiotics for treatment, the probability of a fatal outcome for the patient was 20%.

Death occurred primarily as a result of infection, pneumonia, intestinal hemorrhage, or intestinal perforation.

With the application of treatment with antibiotics, the mortality rate was reduced to 1-2% of the patients.

With the prescription of appropriate antibiotic therapy, improvement is usually observed within 1-2 days of starting antibiotic treatment and the patient fully recovers in about 7-10 days.< /em>

In most cases of typhoid fever, doctors, due to the risk of complications such as intestinal perforation and intestinal bleeding, prescribe a hospital treatment regimen.

Several antibiotics are effective in treating typhoid fever. Ciprofloxacin is prescribed for the treatment of the disease in adults, it is contraindicated for pregnant women and children, so doctors prescribe Ceftriaxone for them, which is a substitute for ciprofloxacin.

When prescribing antibiotics, doctors are guided by the geographic origin of the strain of the bacteria that causes typhoid, as some strains of the bacteria from South America are resistant to ciprofloxacin.

When typhoid relapses occur, antibiotic treatment is not recommended, as it becomes ineffective.

However, in some cases of typhoid becoming chronic, the attending physician may consider long-term antibiotic treatment.

Sometimes, however, only the removal of the gallbladder from the site of chronic infection can be a cure for typhoid fever.

For those traveling to high-risk areas where the likelihood of infection is high, typhoid and paratyphoid vaccines are now available, but none of them is a 100% guarantee that to infect, and their effectiveness decreases over time, so it is necessary to re-immunize.

The only preventative measure when traveling in high risk areas is to maintain very good personal hygiene and drink only bottled water as the bacteria is also waterborne, you should also not eat fresh fruit and vegetables before you have washed them very well.

It is better that the food you eat is cooked at high temperature, because the salmonella bacteria dies at high temperature.

Measures to alleviate the condition of the typhoid patient

Measures to alleviate the condition of the typhoid patient are very important to maintain the patient’s health and speedy recovery.

Here are some of the key strategies that can be implemented:

Intake of a large amount of fluids

This is especially important because the diarrhea and high fever that accompany typhoid fever can lead to dehydration.

Dehydration can be dangerous and lead to additional health problems, including reduced blood volume and reduced organ function.

To prevent dehydration, you should drink plenty of water and other fluids such as juices and broths. In some cases, it may be necessary to take oral rehydration solutions that contain important electrolytes.

Adherence to a healthy diet

Eating high-calorie foods can help the body cope with illness and restore nutrients lost as a result of diarrhea.

Inclusion of protein-rich foods such as meat, fish, eggs and legumes can help maintain muscle mass and energy levels.

Also, eating whole grains, fruits and vegetables can provide essential vitamins and minerals.

Regular medical examinations

Regular medical examinations are important for monitoring the progress of treatment and for early detection of possible complications.

They can also help adjust the treatment plan if needed.

Hygiene maintenance

Hygiene is essential to prevent further spread of the bacteria.

Regular hand washing, especially before eating and after using the toilet, can help prevent further spread of the bacteria.

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