What is vertigo?

Vertigo or vertigo is the feeling that you or the world around you is spinning or moving. When you feel like you’re spinning without actually doing so, it’s called subjective vertigo.

The sensation that the world around is spinning or moving is called objective vertigo.

Unlike non-specific vertigo or dizziness, vertigo has several causes.

What are the symptoms of vertigo?

For vertigo to be present, a person is supposed to feel that he or she is moving or spinning without actually physically spinning or moving.

Characteristic symptoms are a feeling of lack of coordination, disorientation and confusion. Any of these symptoms may also appear:

  • Nausea and vomiting;
  • Sweating and/or unusual eye movements.

The duration of symptoms can be from a few minutes to hours. They can be permanent or, as is the case in most cases, episodic.

Vertigo can also be a result of sudden movement or a sudden change in body position. It is important to tell your doctor about any recent head injury and any medications you are taking.

Accompanying symptoms such as partial hearing loss and tinnitus are also possible. A person affected by vertigo may have visual disturbances, fatigue, slurred speech, and difficulty walking.

What causes vertigo?

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPP) is one of the most common conditions causing vertigo.

It is associated with the inner ear and is manifested by short episodes of intense vertigo when the patient changes the position of his head.

This is due to small crystals inside the hemispheric canal of the ear that move abnormally and cause the sensation of vertigo.

In addition, acoustic neuroma is a second cause of vertigo. This is a form of tumor of the nerve tissue of the ear that can cause a variety of symptoms, including a spinning sensation.

This tumor usually grows slowly and can affect the sensory input to the ear, which is responsible for balance.

Meniere’s disease is another disorder related to vertigo and balance. It is a chronic disease of the inner ear that results in episodic attacks of vertigo, hearing impairment and ear fullness.

The exact cause of Meniere’s disease is still not fully understood, but an imbalance of fluid in the ear is thought to play a role in its development.

Inflammation of the inner ear can also cause vertigo. This condition is often associated with viral infections and can cause temporary problems with balance and coordination.

However, in many cases this condition heals itself after a period of time.

Treatment of vertigo

There are various ways to treat vertigo such as home treatment, drug therapy, physical therapy.

Treat yourself at home only if you have previously consulted a doctor.

If your doctor approves, you can try several home remedies for vertigo:

  • Additional vitamin D intake is beneficial for people diagnosed with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
  • In vertigo, certain herbs such as ginger root, ginkgo biloba and coriander are also recommended to help reduce the frequency and intensity of vertigo attacks.
  • Acupuncture is helpful for some types of vertigo.
  • Avoid substances that can affect coordination such as tobacco, alcohol and caffeine.
  • Drink plenty of fluids.

Medications most commonly prescribed for vertigo are:

  • meclozine;
  • diphenhydramine;
  • scopolamine transdermal patch;
  • promethazine;
  • diazepam.

These medications should only be taken as directed and under the supervision of a doctor.


For people who are prone to losing their balance during an attack of vertigo, it is important to take precautions to prevent the risk of falling and injury.

This may include the use of assistive devices such as canes or even escorting to more dangerous places.

Regular exercise to improve balance and coordination can also be helpful, such as yoga or Pilates.

Those who are at risk of stroke should make efforts to maintain optimal health. This includes regular monitoring of blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, such as exercise and a healthy diet, can help reduce the risk of stroke.

For people with Ménière’s disease, following a special diet can help manage symptoms.

Limiting salt intake is especially important because sodium can worsen fluid retention in the inner ear, leading to feelings of fullness and dizziness.

This may include avoiding salty foods and controlling sodium intake.

Options for preventing vertigo and related problems are varied and based on each person’s individual needs and healthy lifestyle.

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