Thickness is an anthroponous non-venereal treponematosis with a contact mechanism of transmission of the causative agent. It is characterized by the involvement of the skin, mucous membranes, bones and joints.

Since the end of the Second World War, yams have been the most widespread disease in countries in the tropical, subequatorial and equatorial climate zones.

According to the data of the World Health Organization, only in the countries of equatorial Africa, until now, people suffering from this disease suffer more than 50 million people.

What are the causes?

The cause of the disease is Treponema pertenue Castellani, (Treponema Variabilis), discovered in 1905, which is a spiral treponema with a length of 8 to 20 microns and a diameter of 8 to 20 micron.

According to this species, the treponema differs from that which causes syphilis only in the presence of a double-layered envelope, a complex but single-layered cytoplasmic membrane, and cysts with a single-layered envelope.

In comparison, Treponema pallidus /the causative agent of syphilis/ has a three-layer envelope, a two-layer cytoplasmic membrane, and cysts with a three-layer envelope.

The lack of a multi-layered cytoplasmic membrane in Treponema pertenue and its cysts contributes to the effective effect of antibiotics on it.

The antigenic properties of Treponema pertenue and Treponema pallidum are very similar, especially in the concentration of lipid, immunofluorescent and immobilizing antibodies.

Therefore, the reaction of Wasserman, immunofluorescence and immobilization is positive, although the titers of lipid antibodies are usually several times lower in Yambesia than in syphilis.

The antigenic combination of the two treponemas determines the development of cross-immunity between syphilis and yams.

What are the symptoms?

According to the international classification of the clinical manifestations of yaws, proposed by a group of WHO experts, early and late stages are distinguished in the course of the disease.

Early stages of the disease refer to the primary and secondary periods, and to the late – the tertiary period of the disease.

The early manifestations of yaws are characterized by the formation of multiple and disseminated lesions, contagiousness, affecting not only the skin, but also mucous membranes, bones and joints.

A distinctive feature of the clinical manifestations, along with the abundance of efflorescences /that is, rashes/, which are characterized by a superficial location and benignity, absence of necrotic transformation and a tendency to spontaneous self-destruction.

The late stages, on the contrary, are distinguished by limited, localized, deep inflammatory nodes in which the accumulation of pus is possible. They are subjected to destruction involving not only the skin, but also the subcutaneous tissues, bones, tendons and joints.

The early stages of yaws include the incubation period, primary affection, and secondary disseminated eruptions. The incubation period varies from 3-6 weeks to 4 months.

Unlike the incubation period in syphilis, which goes unnoticed, without prodromal phenomena, in the case of franbesia, pronounced ones such as chills, headache, high body temperature, bone and joint pain, gastrointestinal disorders are observed.

The prodrome is particularly severe in children.

Treatment of yaws

In the early stages of the disease, penicillin preparations are prescribed in large quantities in injectable form by giving 1-2 injections. In case of already advanced disease, even larger doses of these medications are administered in the form of 2-4 injections with intervals of 5-10 days.

After 24-28 hours, the causative agent of the disease, the treponema, disappears, but the manifestations of yaws resolve after 1-1.5 months. When the disease is in a late stage, the therapy also regresses, but not earlier than 1.5-3 months.

For prophylactic treatment in case of contact with a sick person, 1 injection with a penicillin preparation is given.

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