Basal cell carcinoma

Basalioma /basal cell carcinoma/ – a malignant tumor of the skin that develops from the cells of the epidermis.

It got its name because of the similarity of the tumor cells with the cells of the basal layer of the skin.

Basal cell carcinoma has the main characteristics of malignant formations: it penetrates into neighboring tissues and destroys them, it reappears even after proper treatment.

But unlike other malignant diseases, it practically does not metastasize.

What are the symptoms?

Basal cell carcinoma occurs on the face or neck. The development of the tumor begins with the appearance of small pale pink, reddish or flesh-colored nodules on the skin.

At first, the nodule may resemble a simple pimple that grows slowly and does not cause any painful sensations. A gray crust appears in its center.

After its removal, a small depression appears, which soon becomes covered with a crust again.

Basal cell carcinoma is characterized by the presence of a dense, cushion-like structure around the tumor, which is clearly visible when the skin is stretched.

The soft granule-like formations that make up this structure look very much like pearls.

Further growth of basal cell carcinoma in some cases leads to the formation of new nodes, which subsequently begin to merge with each other.

The increase in the amount of superficial blood vessels leads to ulceration in the center of the tumor with a gradual increase in the size of the wound and partial cicatrization.

Increasing in size, the carcinoma penetrates the surrounding tissues, even into cartilage and bone, causing a pain syndrome.

Nodulo-ulcerative basal cell carcinoma is characterized by the appearance of an open skin thickening with a round shape, resembling a nodule.

Over time, the skin thickening increases in size and becomes injured, its outlines acquire an irregular shape. The characteristic “pearl” girdle is formed around the node.

In most cases, nodular-ulcerative basal cell carcinoma occurs in the eyelid, in the nasolabial folds, or in the inner corner of the eye.

Pigmented basal cell carcinoma has a characteristic appearance – the lesion is surrounded by a “pearl” belt. But the dark pigmentation of the center or edges of the tumor make it look like melanoma.

The sclerodermiform form of carcinoma is distinguished by the fact that the characteristic skin lesion is pale in color, and as its size increases, it turns into a flat and dense plaque, the edges of which have a clear contour.

The surface of the poster is rough and can be damaged over time.

Nodular basal cell carcinoma is a nodule protruding above the skin, and small spider-like blood vessels are visible from its surface. The nodule does not grow in the tissues, it does so outside.

Treatment of basal cell carcinoma

The method of treatment is selected individually, considering the size of the tumor, its location, its clinical forms and its morphological appearance and the degree of penetration into neighboring tissues.

It also matters if this is its first occurrence or if it is a recurrence. Then the results of the treatment already carried out, the age and concomitant diseases of the patient are taken into account.

Surgical removal of the malignant formation is the most common and effective way of treatment.

The operation is performed for limited tumors located in relatively safe places for surgical intervention.

The resistance of basalioma to radiation therapy or its recurrence is an indication for surgical removal.

For sclerodermiform carcinoma or for a recurrent tumor, excision is performed using a surgical microscope.

Cryodestruction of basal cell carcinoma with liquid nitrogen is fast and painless, but the procedure is only effective for superficial tumors and does not exclude the occurrence of recurrences.

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