Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is a malignant tumor that arises in the bladder, a balloon-shaped organ located in the pelvic area that stores urine.

The disease most often begins in the cells that cover the inside of the organ.

The malignancy usually affects the elderly, although it can occur at any age.

In the majority of cases, the disease is detected at an early stage, when the treatment is most successful.

However this is a possible relapse. For this reason, people who have been successfully cured are subject to mandatory follow-up examinations years after the end of treatment.

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

The clinical manifestations of the disease most often consist of:

• Appearance of blood in the urine /hematuria/ and its color can vary from dark yellow to bright red. Or it is possible that the urine fluid appears normal, but single erythrocytes may be detected when examining it under a microscope.

• Frequent urination;
• Painful urination;
• Back pain;
• Painful sensations in the pelvis;

What are the causes?

The cause of a malignant tumor of the bladder is not always established. It has been suggested that it may be related to smoking, parasitic infection, radiation or chemical exposure.

The disease develops when cells in the bladder begin to grow abnormally. Instead of growing and dividing in an organized way, these cells develop mutations that instruct them to grow and replicate indefinitely . These abnormal cells form a tumor.

Different types of cells in the bladder can become cancerous.

The type of bladder cells that initially mutate also determine the type of bladder cancer and the most appropriate treatment method.

There are several varieties of the disease called bladder cancer:

• Transitional cell carcinoma – occurs due to a mutation of the cells forming the inner surface of the bladder.

Transitional cells expand when the bladder is full and contract when the bladder is empty.

Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common malignant disease of the bladder – over 90% of those affected develop this form of cancer.

• Squamous cell carcinoma – squamous cells appear in the bladder in response to infection and inflammation. Over time, these cells can become cancerous. It is very rare in Europe.

The disease is widespread in some parts of the world where a certain parasitic infection /schistomiasis/ is the predominant cause of bladder infections.

Adenocarcinoma – starts in the cells that form the mucus-secreting glands in the bladder. This variety of the disease is also rare in Europe.

Treatment of bladder cancer

Applicable methods of treatment are determined by a number of factors, such as the type and stage of the cancer, the general health of the patient, taking into account and his opinion.


If the cancer is very small and has not invaded the bladder wall, the following surgical procedures are applicable:

• Surgery to remove tumors in bladder cancer – transurethral resection /TUR/ is often used to remove the malignant formation that is limited to inner layers of the bladder.

During TUR, the surgeon inserts a small wire with a cytoscope into the bladder. An electric current is applied to the wire to burn the cancer cells.

In some cases, a high-energy laser can be used instead of an electric current. TUR may cause painful or bloody urination for several days after the procedure.

Removal of the tumor and part of the bladder – the procedure is called a segmental or partial cystectomy and the part of the organ that contains the cancer cells is removed to stop the spread and cure the cancer that has occurred the bladder.

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button