Cervical cancer

What is cervical cancer?

The cervix is ​​the lowest part of a woman’s uterus. Most of the uterus is located in the pelvis, but part of the cervix is ​​located in the vagina, where it connects the uterus to the vagina.

Cervical cancer develops when the cells of the cervix change in such a way that they begin to grow and multiply abnormally and invade other tissues and organs.

Like all types of carcinoma, cervical cancer is much more successfully treated if it is detected early and treated promptly.

Among the key characteristics of cervical carcinoma is its slow progression from normal cervical tissue through precancerous changes, a condition called dysplasia, to invasive carcinoma.

Slow progression with numerous pre-cancerous changes is very important because it provides opportunities for prevention, early detection through Pap tests – better known as pap smears and timely initiation of treatment.< /p>

Invasive carcinoma means that the malignancy affects longer layers of tissue on the cervix and can spread to other parts of the body.

In most cases, cervical cancer does not metastasize, but if not treated in time, it most often spreads to the lungs, liver, bladder, and vagina or rectum.

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

As with most cancers, cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms until it has progressed to a life-threatening stage.

  • Even in a very advanced stage, cervical carcinoma does not cause pain.
  • The most characteristic symptom is frequent vaginal bleeding. This bleeding is different from menstruation.
  • Cervical cancer may also cause abnormal vaginal discharge.

What are the causes?

Cervical cancer begins with abnormal changes in the cervical tissue. Infection with human papilloma virus-HPV is the cause of almost all types of cervical carcinoma.

Other risk factors are – early initiation of sexual contacts, multiple sexual partners, smoking, HIV infection and a weakened immune system, as well as the use of oral contraceptives – birth control pills.

Cervical cancer treatment

If the disease is detected at an early stage, treatment is aimed at preventing precancerous cells from becoming cancerous.

This is usually a gradual process of removing cells or tissue to diagnose the cancer and to find out how far it has spread.

If the deeper cells that are removed by biopsy are normal, no further treatment may be needed.

If the deepest cells that are removed in the biopsy are cancerous or have precancerous changes, this means that the cancer has spread deeper into the tissue. In these cases, the treatment continues with the removal of additional tissues.

As these extra tissues have been removed, they are again examined for dysplastic changes to ensure the doctor that all precancerous and cancerous cells have been removed from the body or are otherwise destroyed.

How to protect ourselves?

  • Regular gynecological examinations: One of the most important ways of early detection and prevention of cervical cancer is regular gynecological examination. Women should consult a gynecologist or obstetrician-gynecologist for regular checkups and PAP tests. This screening can help detect changes in the cervix that may be precancerous and easily treatable.
  • HPV Vaccination: HPV is the main viral agent, associated with cervical cancer. HPV vaccination can provide protection against some of the main types of HPV that cause cervical cancer. This vaccination is usually offered to young girls and boys before they become sexually active, but may be given at a later age.
  • Sexual Protection: Using condoms timing of sexual contact can reduce the risk of contracting HPV and other sexually transmitted infections. Although condoms do not guarantee 100% protection, they are an important way to protect against both cervical cancer and other diseases.
  • Limiting the number of sexual partners: Most partners increase the risk of HPV infection. Limiting the number of sexual partners and avoiding partners at high risk for HPV can help reduce the risk.
  • Cigarette cessation: As with many other cancers, smoking increases the risk of developing cervical cancer. Quitting smoking or never starting to smoke can have a positive effect on your health and your risk of cancer.
  • Healthy Lifestyle: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle with proper nutrition, regular physical activity and avoiding stressful situations can strengthen the immune system and help the body fight infections, including HPV.

These preventive measures are key to staying healthy of women and reducing the risk of this type of cancer.

It is important to consult your doctor or gynecologist to get detailed information and advice specific to your situation.

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