Encyclopedia

Prostate cancer

What is prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is a disease in which, most often, glandular cells in the prostate gland begin to change and invade neighboring tissues.

Glandular cells secrete the fluid from which the seminal fluid content or sperm is formed. The medical term for prostate cancer that starts in the glandular cells of the prostate is adenocarcinoma.

Other types of cancer can also develop in the prostate gland, with the most common prostate cancer after adenocarcinoma being transitional cell carcinoma.

But these types are so rare that if a diagnosis of prostate cancer is made it is almost certain to be adenocarcinoma.

In some cases, prostate cancer develops very quickly, but it can also develop extremely slowly.

When autopsies are done on people who died from other diseases, it is found that they had prostate cancer, but it never affected their lives and even their doctors did not know about it.

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

Most people have no symptoms. This is especially true for early stage prostate cancer.

Symptoms usually appear when the tumor causes some degree of obstruction of the urinary tract.

The usual symptoms are:

  • The separated stream during urination becomes thinner, the frequency of urination increases and is accompanied by pain.
  • The total amount of separated urine decreases and feels the fullness of the bladder after urinating.
  • It should be noted that the indicated symptoms alone do not confirm the presence of carcinoma but the prostate. Most of these symptoms occur in men with non-cancerous benign prostate enlargements. However, if such symptoms develop, a urologist should be examined to rule out malignancy and provide appropriate treatment.
  • If the cancer is caused by chronic obstruction of the urinary tract or bladder, then a characteristic symptom of prostate carcinoma is frequent urinary tract infections.
  • Rare symptoms, even in advanced stages of carcinoma, are:

– Presence of blood in the urine – hematuria;

– Painful ejaculation and impotence;

If the cancer has metastasized, the symptoms can be systemic and include:

  • Fatigue;
  • Mass and weight loss;
  • Bone metastases can cause deep, sharp pain in the bones, especially in the hips and back, or even bone fractures from weakening of the bones;

What are the causes?

The exact cause for prostate cancer remains unknown. Hormonal, genetic and environmental factors and diet are thought to play a role.

Yet an established relationship between the occurrence of prostate carcinoma and age, ethnicity and heredity.

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Prostate cancer treatment is usually effective in most people. Different treatment options are applied depending on the stage of the disease.

The ways to treat localized (non-metastatic) prostate cancer are:

  • Active observation – at the discretion of the doctor, the tumor is only observed;
  • Radical prostatectomy – surgical removal of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles; >
  • Radiotherapy;
  • Cryotherapy – freezing of the malignant tumor tissue or HAIFU – ultrasound is applied to the carcinoma, which causes hyperthermia and subsequent necrosis of the treated tissue.

Treatment of prostate carcinoma with metastases:

  • Hormonal therapy – more than 50% of specialists do not recommend its use.
  • Chemotherapy;

How to protect ourselves?

Healthy eating and diet:

First of all, you should pay attention to the fat in your food. Animal fats found in red meat and full-fat dairy products can be harmful to the prostate.

Replace them with unsaturated fats, such as those from fish, olives, avocados and nuts. Also, add foods high in antioxidants to your diet, such as tomatoes, strawberries and green tea, which can help fight free radicals and keep your prostate healthy.

Regular physical activity:

Physical activity is important for our overall health and can play a key role in maintaining prostate health.

Regular exercise helps maintain a healthy weight and insulin levels in the body, which can reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer.

It is recommended that you aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week.

Controlling stress:

Stress can have a negative impact on prostate health and our overall well-being. Get used to relaxation and stress management techniques, such as yoga, meditation or deep breathing.

These methods can help maintain a balance in the body’s stress hormone levels.

Regular examinations and tests:

Regular visits to the doctor and examinations are essential for prevention and early detection of prostate problems.

Men after a certain age, usually after age 50, should have regular prostate exams, such as PSA (prostate antigen) tests and digital rectal exams.

Adherence to healthy habits:

Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. These harmful habits can increase the risk of developing prostate cancer and other health problems.

Social interactions:

Don’t forget about the social aspects of health. Maintain close ties with friends and family, as psychological well-being can affect physical health.

Awareness of the subject

And last but not least, being informed about the topic is extremely important.

Knowing the risks and ways to protect your prostate makes you more informed and able to make better health decisions.

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