What is cystitis

Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder wall. Escherichia coli bacteria attach to the bladder lining by means of filaments called pili.

This inflammation usually occurs when the urethra and bladder, which are normally sterile, become infected with bacteria, causing them to become inflamed.

Cystitis is a fairly common lower urinary tract infection that can affect anyone. It occurs more often in women than in men.

Approximately 80% of all urinary tract infections are caused by the bacteria Escherichiacoli. These bacteria are part of the normal intestinal flora.

However, their viral strains can enter the bladder through the urethra and cause urinary tract infections.

What are the symptoms

The main symptoms of cystitis are similar for women, men and children, but in children it is important to note that they may not be able to express the pain or discomfort clearly way.

Parents should be careful and pay attention to changes in the child’s behavior or his reactions during urination.

Among the main symptoms of cystitis are the following:

Traces of blood in the urine

This is one of the most recognizable symptoms of cystitis. Urine may be discolored or contain small amounts of traces of blood, which is usually due to inflammation of the urethra or bladder.

Dark or cloudy urine

Inflammation in the urethra and bladder can cause the urine to change color, making it darker or cloudy. This is the result of the presence of bacteria, proteins and white cells in the urinary system.

Urine has a strong smell

Often, the infection changes the smell of the urine, making it more unpleasant and strong-smelling. This may be noticed by the affected persons or their relatives.

Pain just below the pubic bone

One of the most traditional symptoms of cystitis is a feeling of pain or discomfort just below the pubic bone, which can be mild to moderate or even intense, depending on the degree of inflammation.

Lower back pain

In case of inflammation of the urethra and the bladder, the pain can spread to the area of ​​the lower back, which can cause additional discomfort.

Frequent urination

A person with cystitis usually experiences frequent urges to urinate during the day and night. However, when he goes to the bathroom, he can pass only a small amount of urine due to the inflammation of the bladder, which makes him more irritated and sensitive.

Burning when urinating

One of the most uncomfortable symptoms is a burning or burning sensation when urinating. This can be very painful and cause discomfort to the affected individual.

In children, in addition to the above symptoms, vomiting, general fatigue and unusual changes in the perception of the environment can also be observed.

They often feel unwell and may have difficulty eating or playing. Parents should pay attention to such signs and immediately seek medical help for their children.

Other diseases and conditions can have the same symptoms as cystitis:

  • Urethritis;
  • Urethral syndrome;
  • Some bacterial infections;
  • Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland);
  • Gonorrhea;
  • Chlamydia;
  • Candida (thrush).


In the majority of cases, mild cystitis will pass for a few days. If it lasts more than 4 days, it is necessary to consult your personal doctor.

Sometimes a short usually 3-course of antibiotic treatment. Most patients get an improvement on the first day of treatment.

If the symptoms do not start to subside after taking antibiotics, the patient should return to the doctor again.

Elderly people who are immunocompromised, such as with diabetes, are at a higher risk of the infection spreading to the kidneys, as well as other complications.

Vulnerable people should be treated promptly.

Treatment of cystitis at home

Pain relievers such as ibuprofen and paracetamol, which will relieve discomfort and pain.

Drink plenty of fluids. This will help flush bacteria from the urinary tract.

Do not consume alcohol when your lower urinary tract is inflamed.

Taking sodium citrate or potassium citrate in sachets or powder helps to improve the condition.

Drink cranberry juice. It has been shown to be beneficial for the urinary tract. If you drink cranberry juice every day, you will reduce the chance of a new urinary tract infection.

Cranberry juice contains condensed tannins – tanning substances, D-Mannose – monosaccharide and proanthocyanidins.

They allow the bacteria Escherichiacoli to attach to the surface of the bladder lining, which helps flush the bacteria out of the urinary tract.

Abstain from sex with a lower urinary tract infection.


  1. Maintain good hygiene after sex, especially women. Use neutral and unscented soaps for the genital area.
  2. When you urinate, make sure you empty your bladder completely.
  3. If you get the urge to urinate, go to the bathroom immediately, don’t delay.
  4. Avoid wearing tight underwear and tight pants.
  5. Wear cotton underwear.
  6. Wipe from front to back when urinating.
  7. When having sex before penetration make sure that the genital organ is well lubricated, if necessary use lubricant or vaseline.

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