Cystocele occurs when the supporting tissue between a woman’s bladder and the vaginal wall weakens and stretches, allowing the bladder to bulge into the vagina. The condition is also called bladder prolapse.

Straining the muscles supporting the pelvic organs can also lead to the formation of a cystocele, such as during vaginal delivery or chronic constipation, straining, coughing or lifting heavy objects .

Prolapse can also be caused by postmenopausal problems, when estrogen levels decrease.

When swelling is mild or moderate, conservative treatment is effective in most cases.

In more severe cases, surgery may be required to restore the normal position of the vagina and other pelvic organs.

What are the symptoms?

When the swelling of the bladder wall is not that big, there may be no signs or symptoms.

But when they appear they most often consist of:

• Sensation of fullness or pressure in the pelvis and vagina – especially after prolonged standing.

• Increase in discomfort when straining, coughing, bending or lifting;

• A tissue bulge that, in more severe cases, protrudes through the vaginal opening and when sitting, the affected person may feel as if they are sitting on an egg, which disappears when lying down;

• Feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder after urination;

• Recurrent bladder infections;

• Pain or leakage of urine during intercourse;

When the protrusion in the vagina is too large, it may cause discomfort to the woman, and sometimes even cause painful sensations.

In most cases prolapse makes it difficult to empty the bladder, which creates conditions for the development of infections.

Consult a doctor if you experience symptoms that cause you discomfort similar to those listed above.

What are the causes?

The human pelvis is made up of muscles, tendons and connective tissue that support the bladder and other pelvic organs.

The connections between the pelvic muscles and tendons can weaken over time, such as due to birth trauma or due to chronic strain of the pelvic floor muscles.

When this happens, the bladder can move beyond its anatomical limits and bulge into the vagina, resulting in prolapse.

Possible causes of such swelling are:

• Pregnancy and vaginal delivery;
• Overweight and obesity;
• Repeated lifting of heavy objects;
• Straining during bowel movements;
• Chronic cough or bronchitis;< /p>

Treatment of cystocele

The method of treatment is determined depending on how big the protrusion is and whether the patient has other similar conditions, such as uterine prolapse.

Mild cases with a small bump do not need treatment. In such situations, the doctor recommends waiting and more frequent control examinations to monitor whether the prolapse increases in size.

At the same time, it is mandatory to perform exercises to strengthen the pelvic muscles.

If self-treatment methods are not effective, the attending physician offers one of the following options:

Insertion of a pessary , which is a rubber ring that is inserted into the vagina to strengthen the bladder wall. Many women use pessaries as a temporary alternative to surgery or when surgery is too risky;

Estrogen therapy – usually the hormone is used in the form of a cream, tablet or vaginal ring if the woman has already gone through menopause. This is because estrogen maintains the tone of the pelvic muscles, which decrease after menopause.

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