Encyclopedia

Microsporia

Description

Microsporia is a mycotic disease of the skin, hair and nail plates. The causative agent is the keratinophilic mold fungus of the genus Microsporum, which parasitizes keratin substrates.

Per 100,000 people, about 50-70 cases of fungal infection are registered annually. The disease is seasonal in nature.

Its incubation period is 4-6 weeks and ends with the appearance of red swollen spots on the skin. In the future, new lesions appear that have a typical ring shape.

What are the sources of transmission of the fungal infection?

Since the mold fungus is widespread in nature, infection with it can happen anywhere, but the fungal infection is diagnosed more often in warm and humid climate.

Transmission of the infectious organism takes place through direct contact or contact with objects contaminated with spores of the fungus.

Children aged between 5 and 10 years of age are more often affected, and the incidence in boys is 5 times higher than in girls.

Adults rarely get sick, and in case of infection, the disease is almost always self-limiting due to the presence of organic acids in the hair, which inhibit mycelial growth.

The virulence of the fungal infection is low, because with timely hand washing, even after contamination with spores of the mold fungus, the disease does not occur.

Frequent contact with soil, wild animals, perspiration of the hands and disturbances in the chemical composition of secretions from the sweat and sebaceous glands increase the likelihood of the appearance of microspores. In the soil, the spores of the fungus survive from 1 to 3 months.

Upon penetration, the fungus begins to multiply and affects the hair follicle, after which the infection spreads throughout the hair, which causes the destruction of the hair cuticle due to the accumulation of fungal spores on the scalp.

As a result of the disease, the mycelium spreads throughout the hair and densely fills the hair bulbs, forming a crust over them.

Treatment of microsporia

During the treatment, depending on the degree of involvement, local or generalized antifungal therapy with oral medication is applied.

Topically, creams, ointments and antimycotic emulsions are usually applied, taking into account the patient’s age and general physiological condition before prescribing them.

You should also keep in mind that some antifungal preparations, even with topical application, should be used with caution during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Ointments and sprays of a new generation are used to treat foci of fungal infection on the skin, which do not leave greasy stains on the skin and clothes and ensure the comfort of patients during the application of antifungal therapy.

If you have a pronounced inflammatory reaction, use combined preparations containing antifungal and hormonal components.

Alternative local application of ointments and treatment with iodine solution has a good therapeutic effect, as long as there is no good therapeutic effect.

In case of complications and development of secondary fungal infection, patients respond well to treatment with Triderm ointment, which contains three active ingredients betamethasone, clotrimazole and gentamicin.

And for deeper lesions of the skin, preparations are applied, the composition of which includes dimexide, which is difficult to find in Bulgaria.

Prevention

Prevention of the disease focuses on regularly monitoring children in kindergartens to avoid contact with other sick children, to prevent contact with stray animals and it is necessary to be reminded often that maintaining high personal hygiene is essential to maintaining good health.

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