What is a migraine?

A migraine is a condition of severe headache caused by changes in the brain and surrounding blood vessels.

Migraines usually last between 4 and 72 hours and vary in frequency from daily to once a year.

The types of migraine are:

  • General migraine – the headache begins without prior symptoms, called an aura
  • Classic migraine – before the headache, the patient experiences an aura. Most often these are visual disturbances – blurred vision, stars, etc. A classic migraine is usually much more severe than a common migraine.

What are the symptoms of a migraine?

Symptoms vary from person to person. Five phases are often identified:

  • Early symptoms – a change in mood, for example severe irritability or a depressed state, or a small change in sensations – for example, a strange taste or smell.
  • Aura< /strong> – this is usually a frequent visual or other sensory disturbance that precedes the headache phase. Some migraine sufferers develop blind spots. They start to see flashing or colored lights.
  • Headache – pain usually occurs on one side of the head, but in some cases the pain is on both sides. It is also possible that the pain is throbbing. Most people with migraines feel nauseous, and some even vomit. I can become sensitive to light (photophobia) or to sound (phonophobia). This phase can last 4-72 hours.
  • Stopping the headache – even without treatment , headaches usually go away completely when you sleep.
  • Migraine symptoms after the headache stops – some symptoms may persist even after the pain is gone such as fatigue, trouble concentrating , lack of appetite.

What are the causes of migraine?

Although doctors have considerable understanding of the symptoms and some of the possible causes, the exact cause of migraine remains difficult to determination.

Its etiology is complex and considered multi-layered, involving genetic, environmental and biochemical factors.

Some of the main factors associated with migraines are genetic predisposition and heredity. People with a family history of migraines have a higher risk of developing them.

This suggests that genetic mutations or variations may play an important role in the development of this disease.

One of the key aspects of a migraine is the dilation of blood vessels in the brain and face.

This vasodilation can be triggered by various factors, such as changes in the levels of the hormones serotonin and estrogen.

Changes in serotonin activity are associated with increased pain perception and formation of vascular inflammation.

In addition, other hormones such as calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP), which are associated with pain transmission and regulation of vascular tone, play an important role in the mechanisms behind migraine.

In addition to biochemical and genetic factors, others that can create a risk for migraine are stress, lack of sleep, poor diet, alcohol, tobacco use, exposure to bright light and noise.

Migraine treatment

There are many ways to treat migraine headaches, including self-medication combined with prescription and over-the-counter medications.

Most migraine sufferers can successfully control their headaches at home by doing the following:

  • Apply cold compresses to the site of pain;
  • Rest the head and neck on a comfortable pillow;
  • It is best during a migraine attack to be in a room with little or no sensory stimulation, i.e. it is quiet and there is no strong light;
  • Avoid stressful situations;< /strong>
  • Try to sleep;
  • Drink a moderate amount of caffeine;
  • You can also take over-the-counter headache medications such as ibuprofen, paracetamol, etc. You can also take combination medicines that contain paracetamol and aspirin combined with caffeine.

Botulinum toxin – BOTOX as an injection has been found to help some migraine sufferers and is approved for the treatment of chronic migraine in adults.

Injections are placed at specific points on the head and neck, and their effect lasts for 3 months.

How to protect yourself from migraine attacks?

When preventing migraine attacks, special attention should be paid to some important aspects of life.

Here are additional tips and strategies that can help reduce the risk of migraine attacks:

  1. Regular Sleep: Make sure you get enough sleep and try to maintain a regular sleep schedule. Not getting enough sleep can be a challenge for people with migraines.

  2. Stress Management: Learn to manage stress through various relaxation techniques such as yoga, meditation, breathing and more. Stress is often associated with the initiation of migraine attacks.

  3. Physical activity: Regular exercise can help reduce the frequency of migraine attacks. However, vigorous exercise during a migraine attack should be avoided.

  4. Hydration: Avoid dehydration by drinking enough water throughout the day.

Following these tips and lifestyle changes can go a long way in preventing migraine attacks and improving the quality of life for people who suffer from this disease.

However, it is important to consult a doctor for more individualized treatment and management of migraines.

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button