Sputum is an acute infectious disease characterized by a septic course and the formation of pustules, ulcers and multiple abscesses in the internal organs on the skin and mucous membranes.

What are the causes?

The cause of thrush is Pseuclomonas mallei and is a gram-negative bacterium 2-4 microns long and 0.5-1 micron wide with rounded or slightly pointed ends.

Spores and capsules do not form, they do not have flagella, it grows well in an ordinary nutrient medium. In an external environment /water, soil/ it is stored for 1-1.5 months. It dies when heated and when exposed to various disinfectants.

The pathogen /in vitro/ is sensitive to streptomycin, to antibiotics from the tetracycline group and to some sulfonamides.


The source of the infection is some domestic animals /horses, mules, donkeys, camels/, especially those suffering from the acute form of the infectious disease. At present, sap is found in some countries in Asia, Africa and South America.

It has not been found in Bulgaria, perhaps, for more than a century. People very rarely get thrush. Contagion occurs when the infectious microorganism comes into contact with damaged skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive tracts.

In laboratory conditions, aerogenous contamination is possible.


The door of infection is the damaged skin or mucous membranes. Nodules – granulomas may form at the site of bacterial penetration, which subsequently disappear. Pseuclomonas mallei penetrates the regional lymph nodes, where a purulent inflammatory process develops.

After that, the causative bacterium spreads throughout the body via the hematogenous route and causes the occurrence of secondary septic foci in the muscles and internal organs. It is possible for the formed lesions to open.

The lungs are often affected, where fibrosis and abscesses develop. It is possible to develop purulent meningitis and abscesses of the brain.

What are the symptoms?

The incubation period in most cases lasts 1-5 days. The disease begins abruptly with chills and an increase in body temperature, headache, fatigue, muscle and joint pain.

A dark red papule forms at the site of bacterial penetration, which quickly turns into a purulent pimple, and then into an ulcer. Subsequently, after the generalization of the infection, numerous purulent bubbles appear, a large part of which turn into ulcers.

The characteristic lesion of the pharynx is similar to a crater, the bottom of which is filled with fatty secretion, and around it nodules are formed, which necrotize. The skin of the face is especially often affected.

Subsequently, the infection covers the internal organs, most often the lungs, but also the muscles, cartilage and bones. Abscesses and deep infiltrates are formed with the subsequent development of a purulent process. The general condition of the patient worsens sharply and he quickly develops a fever.

His arterial pressure drops, his heart tones become deaf, mucous-bloody sputum appears. By X-ray and clinically, confluent pneumonia is established.

The chronic form of croup develops gradually, occurs in the form of exacerbations and remissions.

The main clinical symptoms are general intoxication, febrility, manifested in an unusual way, numerous purulent pimples that easily transform into ulcers, abscesses in the muscles with the formation of characteristic fistulas, pneumonia with multiple abscesses develops. The occurrence of cachexia and general amyloidosis is also possible.

Sap treatment

Sulfathiozol is prescribed in high doses for 25-30 days, and the therapy is combined with the prescription of general strengthening agents – vitamins, oxygen therapy and blood transfusion. In the case of formed abscesses, surgical drainage is performed.

Prognosis in the acute form of the disease if untreated is always unfavorable. In the chronic case, a fatal outcome is registered in about 50% of cases. Modern methods of treatment, especially with early initiation of therapy, make the prognosis much more favorable.

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