Varicocele is an expansion of the veins of the scrotum – a skin bag in which the male sex glands – the testicles – are located.

The condition is similar to varicose veins which can appear on the legs.

It is a common cause of disruption of the spermatogenesis process and is associated with deterioration of sperm quality due to low sperm levels, which can lead to infertility.

However, spermatogenesis is not always affected. The condition can cause the testicles to shrink.
In most cases, varicose veins progress.

Fortunately, it is easily detected and most affected do not require treatment. However, if it causes any complaints, it can be corrected surgically.

What are the symptoms?

For most people, varicose veins of the scrotum do not cause any symptoms. Rarely, pain may occur which may:

• changes from mild discomfort – most often a feeling of heaviness to a very strong painful sensation;
• increases when standing or prolonged physical exertion;
• intensifies and causes serious discomfort, but fortunately continues only 1 day.

The pain subsides when the body is lying down. Over time, varicose veins in the scrotum can enlarge and become more visible.

When should you seek medical attention?

When varicose veins in the scrotum do not cause symptoms, no treatment is necessary. They can be found during a routine physical exam or during fertility testing.

However, if you experience pain or swelling in the scrotum or find a mass in it or have fertility problems, contact your doctor.

A number of conditions can cause an abnormal mass in the scrotal sac or pain in the testicles, some of which require immediate treatment.

What are the causes?

The spermatic cord provides blood supply to the testicles. It is not known what causes this dilation of the veins.

Some scientists are of the opinion that this is due to damage to the valves of the veins in the spermatic cord and this is the reason for the incomplete blood flow. Over time, the retention of blood can lead to damage to the testicles and weakening of a man’s fertility.

Varicocele is most often formed during puberty. It usually occurs on the left side, most likely due to the position of the left testicular vein. However, a dilated vein in one testicle can impair the function of both.

Treatment of varicocele

Treatment may not be necessary. However, if varicose veins in your scrotum are causing you discomfort, testicular atrophy, or infertility, or if you are considering assisted reproduction, you should have surgery to correct the damaged veins.

The goal of the surgery is to isolate the affected veins and redirect the blood flow to the normal veins. In cases of male infertility, treatment of varicose veins in the scrotum can improve fertility and even completely cure infertility.

Although varicocele usually develops in the teenage years, research shows that correction of the veins at this age leads to progressive testicular atrophy, pain and reduced sperm quality.

Operations to correct varicose veins in the scrotum are low-risk but can still lead to the following complications:

• accumulation of fluid around the testicle – hydrocele;
• recurrence of varicocele;
• damage to an artery;
The surgical methods for correcting the veins of the scrotum that are applied are:< br/> • open surgery – performed in outpatient settings with general or local anesthesia;
• laparoscopic surgery;
• percutaneous embolization;

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