Encyclopedia

Hypogonadism in men

Hypogonadism in males is a condition in which the body does not synthesize enough testosterone, a hormone whose main function is the formation of secondary sexual characteristics during puberty in boys, or the amount of sperm, released during ejaculation is underestimated.

It is possible to have both violations at the same time.

It is also possible that the condition is congenital or develops later as a result of trauma or infection. The way to counteract the consequences of hypofunction of the testicles is determined depending on the cause and at what point in a person’s life, the condition develops.

Some forms of the condition can be successfully treated with testosterone hormone replacement therapy.

What are the symptoms?

Hypogonadism can appear as early as during fetal development in the mother’s womb, before puberty or in adulthood. Signs and symptoms depend on when the condition started to develop.

If the body does not synthesize enough testosterone during fetal development, the result will be abnormal growth of the external genitalia.

Depending on when the decrease in the amount of male sex hormones began and what their level is in the baby’s body, a genetically determined boy child can be born with:

• Female genitalia;
Improperly formed genitalia – it cannot be determined whether they are male or female;
• Insufficiently developed male genitalia;

Puberty

As a result of the low level of androgens, puberty may be delayed and the boy may not be able to develop fully, this may lead to:

• Decreased amount of muscle mass and its slower accumulation during strength training;
• Absence of the appearance of usual body hair;
• The boy’s voice does not become thicker and deeper;
• Excessive extension of the arms and legs compared to the torso;
• Development of breast tissue – characteristic secondary sex mark in women;
• Abnormal growth of the penis and testicles;

Maturity

In adult men, hypogonadism can alter some typical male secondary sex characteristics and disrupt normal reproductive function. The signs and symptoms of this condition are most often:

• Erectile dysfunction;
• Infertility;
• Delay in the frequency of beard growth and reduction of characteristic male hair growth;
• Decrease in muscle mass;
• Development of breast tissue /gynecomastia/;
• Loss of bone mass /osteoporosis/;

The condition can cause mental and emotional changes. When testosterone levels decline, some men may begin to experience some of the symptoms of menopause in women.

For example:

• Fatigue;
Decreased sexual desire;
• Difficulty concentrating;
• Hot flashes;

When should you seek medical attention?

Seek medical attention if you have any of the symptoms of hypogonadism. Determining the cause of the condition is very important to prescribe the most appropriate treatment.

Treatment of hypogonadism in men

Hormone replacement therapy – when hypogonadism is caused by testicular failure replacement therapy with testosterone or HRT is applied. This therapy can restore sexual function and muscle strength and prevent bone loss. When starting TRT, most men experience increased energy, increased libido and improved mood.
• If a disease or dysfunction of the pituitary gland is the cause, then pituitary hormones can stimulate spermatogenesis and this is how the man’s fertility is restored.

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