Most infections in humans are caused by coagulase-positive strains of Staphylococcus Aureus. Almost any organ or system of the human body can be infected with S. Aureus.

Most often, strains of S. Aureus first infect the skin and its structures such as sebaceous glands, hair follicles, or infect damaged skin /cuts, abrasions/.

Sometimes the infections are relatively limited such as a boil, boil or carbuncle, but in other cases they can spread to other parts of the skin and cause cellulitis, folliculitis or impetigo.

Bacteria can also enter the bloodstream and become the cause of infections in various places on the body, for example they can lead to inflammation of wounds, cause the development of abscesses, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and pneumonia, which can seriously harm and even kill the infected person.

Strains of S. Aureus are also capable of producing enzymes and exotoxins that are thought to cause or worsen certain diseases. Such clinical conditions are food poisoning, septic shock, toxic shock syndrome and burnt skin syndrome.

Strains of S. Epidermidis do not usually cause infections, but can cause infections in people with suppressed immune systems. Patients who have any type of indwelling catheter or implanted devices in the body such as a pacemaker are also at risk for S. epidermidis infections.

What are the symptoms?

With most staph infections, a rash appears at the site of infection – the site is red, slightly swollen and tender. Often at the site of the rash appears pus or some kind of crusted liquid. The area of ​​infection may resemble a small pimple or be as large as a carbuncle.

Burnt skin syndrome manifests as extensive reddening of the skin with the formation of bullae /large blisters filled with fluid or pus/. When bacteria have affected catheters or other implanted devices, redness, pus, and tenderness appear around the site of their entry into the skin.

Deep abscesses, bacterial pneumonia, osteomyelitis, as well as most other internal infections are only visible on X-ray or other imaging techniques such as CT or not at all such as in toxic shock, food poisoning.

External clinical manifestations are only suggestive of infection with staphylococci, proof of infection is carried out through laboratory tests that identify the infectious agent.

Treatment of staphylococci

There are two main methods of treatment: surgical and antibiotic. In most patients, in which the application of surgical treatment is necessary, an antibiotic is also prescribed therapy.

Pus drainage is the main surgical procedure used, but surgical removal of sources of infection such as heart valves or pacemakers may also be required.

Other sources of infection such as joint infections, especially in children, osteomyelitis, or postoperative abscesses may require surgical intervention. It is imperative that any infected tissue that continues to shed staphylococci be surgically removed.

Many antibiotics are effective against staphylococci, for example nafcillin, cefazolin, dicloxacillin, clindamycin or bactrim. But these medications do not affect Staphylococcus aureus.

other antibiotics are used for a similar infection – mupirocin is used for minor skin infections, but if they are more serious it is necessary to use 2 or more antibiotics for example vancomycin, linezolid, rifampin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim etc.

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